Second-Order Black Hole Perturbations:
A Computer Algebra Approach
I - The Schwarzschild Spacetime

George Davies
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada

This example outlines a derivation of the second order perturbations to a Schwarzschild black hole, highlighting the use of, and necessary reliance on, computer algebra. The particular perturbation scenario that is presented here is the case of the linear quadrapole seeding the second order quadrapole. This problem amounts to finding the second order Zerilli wave equation, and in particular the effective source term due to the linear quadrapole. With one minor exception, our calculations confirm the earlier findings of Gleiser et. al. (Gleiser R.J., Nicasio C.O., Price R.H., and, Pullin J., 1996, Class. Quantum Grav., 13, L117). On route to these results we also illustrate that, with the aid of computer algebra, the linear Schwarzschild problem can be solved in a very direct manner (i.e., without resorting to the usual function transformations), and it is this ``direct method'' that drives the higher order perturbation analysis. The calculations were performed using the GRTensorII computer algebra package, running on the Maple V platform, along with new Maple routines that we have written specifically for these types of problems. Although we have chosen to consider only the ``quadrapole-quadrapole'' calculation in this article, the GRTensor environment, with the inclusion of these new routines, would allow this analysis to be repeated for a far more general problem.

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Last update: June 1999